Integrating Printed Text and Visuals Effectively
You can use printed text and visuals simultaneously to create effective instruction. Printed text includes any form of written text, including text documents, articles, essays, and traditional “bullet-point” slide shows. Visuals include things such as photographs, illustrations, diagrams, charts, video clips, maps, and animations.
There are many instructional benefits to integrating printed text and visuals. You can use visuals to:
- Represent prerequisite information,
- Help students make connections with existing knowledge,
- Organize information for students,
- Reinforce key concepts,
- Represent a concept,
- Show a relationship between two or more concepts,
- Depict changes, or
- Add visual interest.
The chart below outlines definitions and examples for the correct way to integrate graphics with text to support learning.
|Type of Graphic||Definition||Example|
|Decorative||Visuals added to make the printed text more appealing||Picture of a life cycle in a lesson about life cycles|
|Representational||Visuals that depict the appearance of an object||Picture of materials needed in the day’s lesson|
|Organizational||Visuals that depict the qualitative relationship among the content||Charts or graphs|
|Relational||Visuals that show or summarize relationships||A bar graph|
|Transformational||Visuals that show changes over the course of time||A photograph that shows the incomplete metamorphosis|
|Interpretive||Visuals that depict specific messages||Photographs that model the proper way to clean a room|
Possible Uses of Visuals Within Instruction
Facts: concrete examples, data, application screens
Example: Picture of a life cycle with labels
Concepts: events, ideas, symbols
Example: Tree diagram of different facets of a subject
Process: instructions to show how something works
Example: Animations that show how water exits the faucet
Procedure: steps to be used to complete a task
Example: Animations that show how to adjust settings on a microscope
Principle: guidelines that result in completion of a task
Example: A video that shows two possible solutions to one problem
Clark, R. & Mayer, R. (2011). Elearning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. Pfeiffer Wiley Imprint.
Pappas, C. (2014, December 15). Audio in elearning: Top ten tips for the elearning professional.
Best Practices When Using Podcasts
Within education, podcasts can be used for several purposes.
- Podcasts are excellent alternatives for delivering content or lessons to students who need additional support.
- Teachers can record audio podcasts to help students review content at a time that fits their schedule best.
- Podcasts can support students who prefer learning by listening.
- Students can create their own podcasts to share their learning experiences with each other.
- The act of creating podcasts encourages students to develop several important skills, such as researching, writing, speaking effectively, solving problems, managing time, grabbing attention, and improving vocabulary.
Download this outline of best practices when using podcasting (PDF).
Podcasting Best Practice Resources
- Audacity Tutorial: 17 Essential Podcast Recording and Editing Tips
- 6 Tips For Producing Good Quality Audio Narrations Every Online Educator Should Know About
- Teacher’s Guide On The Use of Podcasting In Education
- 6 Tips For Adding Podcasts In eLearning
Best Practices When Creating and Using Sceencasts
Just like with podcasts, screencasts can be used in education by instructors and students alike to make an impact on student engagement and learning. When creating screencasts, it is a good idea to plan ahead.
- Choose visuals wisely.
- Consider writing out a script or set of talking points before you record.
- Plan to describe any essential visual elements carefully so that blind students can learn from the action you explain.
- Turn off all non-essential programs that you don’t want to show up in your video. In particular, be sure to turn off email and instant chat tools.
- Set your phone on silent and hang a “Please Do Not Disturb” sign on your door if unexpected visitors might drop by.
- Plug in and test your microphone or headset.
- Embed your video directly into your course, blog, or website so that it plays within the screen and keeps unwanted ads from popping up.
- If your video is on YouTube or another hosting site, make sure the settings NOT set to private so that students can view it.
- Test your video playback to ensure it plays on multiple devices.
- Always provide accurate closed-captioning. Watch the video with captions turned on, and make note of any words or phrases that need to be corrected.