Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC)

Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC, Pennebaker et al., 2007) analyzes text files on a word-by-word basis using an internal dictionary of more than 2,300 of the most common words and word stems. LIWC classifies the words into dozens of linguistic and psychological categories that tap social, cognitive, and affective processes. The 2007 English LIWC dictionary contains 4,500 words (Pennebaker et al., 2007). Each word has been classified or rated by experts on 64 word categories: 22 standard linguistic categories (e.g., pronouns, verb, tenses), 32 psychological categories (e.g., affect, cognition, social, biological processes), 7 personal categories (e.g., work, home, leisure), and 3 paralinguistic dimensions (assents, fillers, nonfluencies). Each word in a text is matched to a word in the dictionary and the associated word characteristics are extracted. The LIWC tool computes the percentage of words in a text that are in each of these linguistic or psychological categories. LIWC has been developed in 10 different languages: English, Chinese, Arabic, Spanish, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Russian and Turkish (

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